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新冠病毒的停工潮會給美國的外籍勞工帶來何種影響?

新冠病毒的停工潮會給美國的外籍勞工帶來何種影響?

TOVIN LAPAN 2020年03月30日
隨著啟程日的臨近,由于新冠病毒相關的禁行令金龙彩票|官网登录,他無法在美國駐中國領事館領取簽證。如今,這位學者及家人乃至這所大學都在觀望今后的動向。

隨著新冠病毒流行的影響不斷擴大金龙彩票|官网登录,面對懸而未定的延期和每天都在變化的形勢,依賴外籍勞工的企業近幾周正在瘋狂地聯系自己的法務團隊金龙彩票|官网登录。

Hall Estill丹佛分部的律師黛安·赫爾南德斯表示,她合作的某所大學之前原本計劃讓一名中國學者3月1日抵達金龙彩票|官网登录,主持一個大型的夏季項目。他的臨時工作簽證(H-1B)在去年12月獲批。但隨著啟程日的臨近金龙彩票|官网登录,由于新冠病毒相關的禁行令,他無法在美國駐中國領事館領取簽證。如今,這位學者及家人乃至這所大學都在觀望今后的動向。

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特朗普當局執政期間,工作簽證和移民福利的審批速度已經大為延緩,他們現在要求提供更多的文件和證明,而這些都是過去幾十年里并不常要的金龙彩票|官网登录。

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法律事務所Mintz的蘇珊·科恩表示:“后果各種各樣。因為經濟下行太快了,一些公司擔心有富余的工作需要招人去做,也在煩惱如何最好地安置員工。另一方面,一些公司仍然急缺人手,他們擔負了巨大的麻煩和費用來留住關鍵員工,如今員工簽證雖然已經獲批,卻來不了美國金龙彩票|官网登录。有時,這些人還是主管和高級經理?!?/p>

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赫爾南德斯說:“如果他們開始裁員或暫時解雇員工,或是關閉簽證審理的服務中心,就可能產生巨大的影響金龙彩票|官网登录?!?/p>

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舊金山的律師詹妮弗·伯克表示:“對大公司來說,這個影響還不算大,但對于那些員工不足10人的小型初創公司而言,缺少一個團隊成員可能真的很不利金龙彩票|官网登录。這種不確定性讓雇主實在難熬?!?/p>

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新冠病毒的流行預計會給一系列依靠外籍勞工的行業帶來壓力金龙彩票|官网登录,科技公司、醫療服務公司金龙彩票|官网登录、食品生產公司等不一而足。

努拉尼表示:“近日里,涉及短期農工簽證(H-2A)的農業部門的利益得到了巨大關注。收獲季即將來臨金龙彩票|官网登录,美國國務院還沒開啟簽證面試金龙彩票|官网登录,種植戶擔心他們的勞動力供應不足金龙彩票|官网登录?!?/p>

今年金龙彩票|官网登录,公民及移民服務局推出了全新的臨時工作簽證抽簽系統,提交最終申請的截止期限也從4月1日推遲到了6月30日。與此同時,他們最近還暫停了加急審理金龙彩票|官网登录。雇主本可以為每份申請支付1,440美元的加急費用,從而確保在15日內獲取批復,否則可能要數月時間才能得知結果。

赫爾南德斯表示:“6月新的截止日期可能給出了更多時間,但對那些不能加急審理、沒有選擇權,或支付不起費用的雇主而言,或許就很不利了。這可能會把簽證許可推遲到10月1日新的簽證期以后金龙彩票|官网登录。舉個例子,那些從學生簽證轉為臨時工作簽證的人,就可能會在簽證獲批前耗盡時間,被迫離境金龙彩票|官网登录,之后又要回來。會帶來整體的多米諾效應〗鹆势眧官网登录!?/p>

公民及移民服務局對政策文件進行了靈活調整,包括他們在3月20日宣布金龙彩票|官网登录,在工作場所恢復正常運營之前金龙彩票|官网登录,不再要求I-9工作授權表格的簽名版原件,而是可以接受復印件。

赫爾南德斯表示:“我告訴客戶要耐心等待,因為事情變化太快金龙彩票|官网登录。最好的做法是記錄一切金龙彩票|官网登录,寫下你在干什么,為什么這樣做。我認為政府知道完全停止審批工作簽證會帶來多大的危害。受到影響的不只是小型企業,還包括微軟(Microsoft)這樣雇傭了大量臨時工作簽證員工的巨頭?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

譯者:嚴匡正

隨著新冠病毒流行的影響不斷擴大金龙彩票|官网登录,面對懸而未定的延期和每天都在變化的形勢,依賴外籍勞工的企業近幾周正在瘋狂地聯系自己的法務團隊。

Hall Estill丹佛分部的律師黛安·赫爾南德斯表示,她合作的某所大學之前原本計劃讓一名中國學者3月1日抵達,主持一個大型的夏季項目。他的臨時工作簽證(H-1B)在去年12月獲批。但隨著啟程日的臨近,由于新冠病毒相關的禁行令,他無法在美國駐中國領事館領取簽證。如今金龙彩票|官网登录,這位學者及家人乃至這所大學都在觀望今后的動向。

赫爾南德斯說:“當他最終入境美國,可能還要處理一些事情,尤其是要從海關獲取入境日的寬限,他的臨時工作身份也會損失幾周或幾個月的期限?金龙彩票|官网登录!边^去幾周里,她從客戶那里收到了大量彌漫著恐慌情緒的郵件。

特朗普當局執政期間,工作簽證和移民福利的審批速度已經大為延緩金龙彩票|官网登录,他們現在要求提供更多的文件和證明,而這些都是過去幾十年里并不常要的金龙彩票|官网登录。

美國國家移民論壇(National Immigration Forum)的執行理事阿里·努拉尼表示:“即使在新冠病毒爆發之前,商界的許多合作伙伴就已經在擔憂公民及移民服務局(USCIS)對于工作相關的入境簽證的處理事宜。等待時間似乎在不斷增加金龙彩票|官网登录,勞工認證和其他要求似乎也越來越繁雜?!?/p>

如今,為應對疫情蔓延金龙彩票|官网登录,審批還會進一步延遲,雇主和雇員都要面臨艱難的抉擇。

法律事務所Mintz的蘇珊·科恩表示:“后果各種各樣。因為經濟下行太快了金龙彩票|官网登录金龙彩票|官网登录,一些公司擔心有富余的工作需要招人去做金龙彩票|官网登录,也在煩惱如何最好地安置員工。另一方面,一些公司仍然急缺人手金龙彩票|官网登录,他們擔負了巨大的麻煩和費用來留住關鍵員工,如今員工簽證雖然已經獲批,卻來不了美國。有時,這些人還是主管和高級經理金龙彩票|官网登录?金龙彩票|官网登录!?/p>

公民及移民服務局進行現場面試金龙彩票|官网登录、生物識別預約和其他工作的辦事處已經暫時關閉,不過處理臨時工作簽證抽簽和簽證審理的代理業務中心仍在運轉。

赫爾南德斯說:“如果他們開始裁員或暫時解雇員工,或是關閉簽證審理的服務中心金龙彩票|官网登录,就可能產生巨大的影響金龙彩票|官网登录金龙彩票|官网登录〗鹆势眧官网登录金龙彩票|官网登录!?/p>

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舊金山的律師詹妮弗·伯克表示:“對大公司來說,這個影響還不算大,但對于那些員工不足10人的小型初創公司而言,缺少一個團隊成員可能真的很不利。這種不確定性讓雇主實在難熬?金龙彩票|官网登录!?/p>

簽證種類不同,相關規定也有很大差別。例如,對于被迫休假的臨時簽證員工,即使沒有上班,公司也必須在合同期內支付薪水。失去工作的簽證持有者一般有60天的緩沖期金龙彩票|官网登录,用于尋找另一份工作或入學,之后他們就會被要求離境。

新冠病毒的流行預計會給一系列依靠外籍勞工的行業帶來壓力金龙彩票|官网登录,科技公司、醫療服務公司、食品生產公司等不一而足。

努拉尼表示:“近日里,涉及短期農工簽證(H-2A)的農業部門的利益得到了巨大關注。收獲季即將來臨金龙彩票|官网登录,美國國務院還沒開啟簽證面試,種植戶擔心他們的勞動力供應不足〗鹆势眧官网登录金龙彩票|官网登录!?/p>

今年金龙彩票|官网登录,公民及移民服務局推出了全新的臨時工作簽證抽簽系統,提交最終申請的截止期限也從4月1日推遲到了6月30日。與此同時,他們最近還暫停了加急審理金龙彩票|官网登录。雇主本可以為每份申請支付1,440美元的加急費用金龙彩票|官网登录,從而確保在15日內獲取批復金龙彩票|官网登录,否則可能要數月時間才能得知結果。

赫爾南德斯表示:“6月新的截止日期可能給出了更多時間,但對那些不能加急審理、沒有選擇權,或支付不起費用的雇主而言,或許就很不利了金龙彩票|官网登录。這可能會把簽證許可推遲到10月1日新的簽證期以后。舉個例子,那些從學生簽證轉為臨時工作簽證的人金龙彩票|官网登录,就可能會在簽證獲批前耗盡時間,被迫離境金龙彩票|官网登录,之后又要回來。會帶來整體的多米諾效應?!?/p>

公民及移民服務局對政策文件進行了靈活調整,包括他們在3月20日宣布,在工作場所恢復正常運營之前金龙彩票|官网登录,不再要求I-9工作授權表格的簽名版原件,而是可以接受復印件。

赫爾南德斯表示:“我告訴客戶要耐心等待,因為事情變化太快。最好的做法是記錄一切,寫下你在干什么,為什么這樣做金龙彩票|官网登录。我認為政府知道完全停止審批工作簽證會帶來多大的危害。受到影響的不只是小型企業,還包括微軟(Microsoft)這樣雇傭了大量臨時工作簽證員工的巨頭?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

譯者:嚴匡正

Faced with indeterminate delays and circumstances changing by the day, businesses that rely on immigrant workers have been frantically communicating with their legal teams in recent weeks as the impact of the coronavirus pandemic has spread.

Diane Hernandez, a Denver-based lawyer at Hall Estill, said one university she works with was expecting a Chinese researcher to arrive March 1 to helm a large summer project. His H-1B visa was approved in December, but as his start day approached, he could not obtain the visa at the U.S. consulate in China because of the coronavirus-related travel ban. Now, the researcher, his family, and the university are all on hold, waiting to see what will happen.

“There will likely be issues when he finally does enter that will have to be dealt with, specifically getting some leeway from U.S. immigration on his entry date and having missed a number of weeks or months in his H-1B status,” says Hernandez, who has fielded many panicked emails from clients in the past few weeks.

The processing speed for employment visas, and immigration benefits in general, had already decelerated under the Trump administration, with more requests for additional documentation and other evidence that were not typical in the decades prior.

“Even before COVID-19, many of our partners in the business community were worried about USCIS [U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services] processing of work-related immigration visas. Wait times, labor certifications, and other issues seemed to spring up at every turn,” says Ali Noorani, executive director of the National Immigration Forum.

Now, further delays are expected during the pandemic response, and employers and employees alike are faced with tough decisions.

“There are all kinds of ramifications. Some companies are worried about having work available for people to do, because the economy’s going downhill so quickly, and how to handle their staff in the best way,” says Susan Cohen of the Mintz law firm. “On the other side, some businesses are still desperate for people, key hires that they’ve gone to great trouble and expense to retain, and now their visa is approved, but they can’t get here. In some cases we’re talking about executives and top managers.”

USCIS offices for in-person interviews, biometric appointments, and other activities are temporarily closed, but the agency service centers that handle things like the H-1B lottery process and visa adjudications are still operating.

“If they start laying people off or furloughing workers, or otherwise close the service centers where they do the adjudication, that would have a huge impact,” Hernandez says.

While employment, student, and other visa applications are moving forward, they will not be issued until consulates reopen to the public, and travel bans are lifted.

“For larger companies it might not be such a big deal, but for the little startups that have fewer than 10 employees, to not have one team member can be really detrimental. The uncertainty is really tough on employers,” says San Francisco–based attorney Jennifer Burk.

Depending on the visa category, rules can vary widely. Furloughed H-1B employees, for example, must still be paid even if they are not working, as long as they are under contract. Laid-off visa holders typically have 60 days to adjust their status, such as securing a different job or enrolling in school, before they are required to leave the country.

From technology companies, to medical services and food production, the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to strain a wide range of industries reliant on immigrant labor.

“One area of great concern these days is coming from agricultural interests who utilize the H-2A program,” Noorani says. “With harvest season looming and the State Department not conducting interviews, growers are worried about their labor supply.”

This year, USCIS implemented a brand-new H-1B lottery system that pushes the old April 1 deadline for final applications out to June 30. Meanwhile, USCIS recently suspended premium processing, which enables employers to pay $1,440 per application for a guaranteed response in 15 days, otherwise a decision can take months.

“The new June deadline might offer more time, but it could end up as a negative for employers who can’t do premium processing, are not given the option, or can’t afford it,” Hernandez says. “That will likely push approval past the October 1 start of the new visa period. Someone who is converting from student to H-1B, for example, may run out of status before the new visa is approved and would be required to leave, then come back. It’s a whole domino effect.”

USCIS has made some allowances for filings, including a March 20 announcement to accept copies of signed I-9 work authorization forms in lieu of original documents until normal work-site operations resume.

“I tell my clients to take it day by day, because things are changing so fast. The best thing to do is document everything, keep track of what you’re doing and why,” Hernandez says. “I think that the government understands how detrimental it would be to totally cease processing work visas, not just to small entrepreneurs but to big companies like Microsoft that use tons of H-1B workers.”

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